Hi. Can you help me figure out what the independent and dependent variables are in this study? Also, what is the research design? Information from the article is below.
Article title: African American Clergy and Depression: What they know; What they want to know
Authors: Jean Spann Anthony, PhD, RN, A pril Johnson, BSN, RN, John S chafer, PhD
Abstract: Nearly 40% of African Americans use clergy as their primary source of help with depression. However, less than half o f African American clergy are trained in counseling. Objectives: 1) to examine how African American clergy recognize depression and 2) identify what they need to more effectively identify and address depression in their congregants. Design: This was a descriptive, quantitative study using a Personal Profile Questionnaire and a Mental Health Counseling Survey. Results: Sixty-five clergy completed the data collection tools; approximately 50% had some training in counseling. The majority could identify signs of depression. Eighty-one percent stated they needed additional education about depression and access to referral resources. Conclusions: If clergy take an active role in addressing the issue of depression and establishing liaisons with mental health professionals the stigma associated with depression could be greatly reduced, and individuals might enter into treatment earlier thus improving their quality of life.
This study examined four research questions:
1) What is the association between the African American clergy’s demographic factors (age, education, gender, marital status) and their ability to recognize and address depression?
2) What are the cues / behaviors that African American clergy look for that starts them thinking that a congregant may be depressed?
3) How does depression counseling differ from spiritual counseling among African American clergy?
4) What do African American clergy identify as their resource and training needs in order to develop their skills in recognizing and managing depression in their congregants?